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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
 
FORM 10-Q
 

 
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended March 31, 2020
or
 
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from ________ to________
Commission File Number: 001-39037
 
SMILEDIRECTCLUB, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
 
Delaware
 
83-4505317
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
414 Union Street
 
37219
Nashville,
TN
 
(Address of principal executive offices)
 
(Zip Code)
(800) 848-7566
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Not applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
Trading Symbol(s)
Name of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 per share
SDC
The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).       Yes      No



Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
 

Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes  No
The registrant has the following number of shares outstanding of each of the registrant’s classes of common stock as of May 6, 2020:
Class A Common stock: 108,613,088
Class B Common Stock: 276,454,886

 
 
 
 
 




 
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
PART I
 
Item 1
 


 


 
 
 
 
 


 


 
Item 2
 
Item 3
 
Item 4
 
PART II
 
Item 1
 
Item 1A
 
Item 2
 
Item 3
 
Item 4
 
Item 5
 
Item 6
 




CAUTIONARY STATEMENT REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements. Any statements about our expectations, beliefs, plans, predictions, forecasts, objectives, assumptions, or future events or performance are not historical facts and may be forward-looking. These statements are often, but not always, made through the use of words or phrases such as “anticipates,” “believes,” “can,” “could,” “may,” “predicts,” “potential,” “should,” “will,” “estimate,” “plans,” “projects,” “continuing,” “ongoing,” “expects,” “intends,” and similar words or phrases. Although we believe that the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements are reasonable, these statements are not guarantees of future performance and involve risks and uncertainties which are subject to change based on various important factors, some of which are beyond our control. For more information regarding these risks and uncertainties as well as certain additional risks that we face, refer to “Risk Factors” as well as the factors more fully described in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Conditions and Results of Operations” in this report and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019. Among the factors that could cause our financial performance to differ materially from that suggested by the forward-looking statements are:

our ability to effectively manage our growth; 

our ability to effectively execute our business strategies, implement new initiatives, and improve efficiency; 

our sales and marketing efforts; 

our manufacturing capacity and performance and our ability to reduce the per unit production cost of our clear aligners; 

our ability to obtain regulatory approvals for any new or enhanced products; 

our estimates regarding revenues, expenses, capital requirements, and needs for additional financing; 

our ability to effectively market and sell, consumer acceptance of, and competition for our clear aligners in new markets; 

our relationships with retail partners and insurance carriers; 

our research, development, commercialization, and other activities and projected expenditures; 

changes or errors in the methodologies, models, assumptions, and estimates we use to prepare our financial statements, make business decisions, and manage risks; 

our current business model is dependent, in part, on current laws and regulations governing remote healthcare and the practice of dentistry, and changes in those laws, regulations, or interpretations that are inconsistent with our current business model could have a material adverse effect on our business; 

our relationships with our freight carriers, suppliers, and other vendors; 

our ability to maintain the security of our operating systems and infrastructure (e.g., against cyber-attacks); 

the adequacy of our risk management framework; 

our cash needs and ability to raise additional capital, if needed; 

our intellectual property position; 

our exposure to claims and legal proceedings;


1


our ability to manage the COVID-19 pandemic and containment measures and the related impacts on our business; and

other factors and assumptions described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

If one or more of the factors affecting our forward-looking information and statements proves incorrect, our actual results, performance or achievements could differ materially from those expressed in, or implied by, forward-looking information and statements. Therefore, we caution not to place undue reliance on any forward-looking information or statements. The effect of these factors is difficult to predict. Factors other than these also could adversely affect our results, and the reader should not consider these factors to be a complete set of all potential risks or uncertainties. New factors emerge from time to time, and management cannot assess the impact of any such factor on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause results to differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statement. Any forward-looking statements only speak as of the date of this document, and we undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking information or statements, whether written or oral, to reflect any change, except as required by law. All forward-looking statements attributable to us are expressly qualified by these cautionary statements.

You should read this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and the documents that we reference in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q and have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) as exhibits to this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q with the understanding that our actual future results, levels of activity, performance, and events and circumstances may be materially different from what we expect.

PART I—FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements

2

SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets (Unaudited)
(in thousands)


 
March 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
ASSETS
 
 
Cash
$
224,434

$
318,458

Accounts receivable
246,959

239,413

Inventories
28,187

18,431

Prepaid and other current assets
10,415

14,186

Total current assets
509,995

590,488

Accounts receivable, non-current
98,348

106,315

Property, plant and equipment, net
184,712

177,543

Operating lease right-of-use asset
43,105


Other assets
11,608

11,299

Total assets
$
847,768

$
885,645

LIABILITIES AND PERMANENT EQUITY
 
 
Accounts payable
$
59,748

$
52,706

Accrued liabilities
84,374

93,339

Deferred revenue
29,037

25,435

Current portion of long-term debt
37,539

35,376

Other current liabilities
7,156


Total current liabilities
217,854

206,856

Long-term debt, net of current portion
183,874

173,150

Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion
36,409


Other long-term liabilities
44,493

47,354

Total liabilities
482,630

427,360

Commitment and contingencies




Permanent Equity
 
 
Class A common stock, par value $0.0001 and 108,512,662 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and 103,303,674 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2019
11

10

Class B common stock, par value $0.0001 and 276,454,886 shares issued and outstanding at March 31, 2020 and 279,474,505 shares issued and outstanding at December 31, 2019
27

28

Additional paid-in-capital
461,046

447,866

Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)
12

(272
)
Accumulated deficit
(143,763
)
(114,513
)
Noncontrolling interest
47,805

125,166

Total permanent equity
365,138

458,285

Total liabilities and permanent equity
$
847,768

$
885,645


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.

3

SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations (Unaudited)
(in thousands, except per share amounts)


 
Three Months Ended March 31,
2020
2019
Revenue, net
$
183,928

$
168,626

Financing revenue
12,722

9,110

Total revenues
196,650

177,736

Cost of revenues
59,777

40,471

Cost of revenues—related parties

8,444

Total cost of revenues
59,777

48,915

Gross profit
136,873

128,821

Marketing and selling expenses
142,324

95,733

General and administrative expenses
91,029

49,459

Loss from operations
(96,480
)
(16,371
)
Interest expense
4,022

3,896

Interest expense—related parties

75

Other expense
4,924

118

Net loss before provision for income tax expense
(105,426
)
(20,460
)
Provision for income tax expense
1,974

20

Net loss
(107,400
)
(20,480
)
Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interest
(78,150
)

Net loss attributable to SmileDirectClub, Inc.
$
(29,250
)
$
(20,480
)
 
 
 
Earnings per share of Class A common stock:
 
 
Basic
$
(0.28
)
N/A

Diluted
$
(0.28
)
N/A

 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
Basic
104,595,081

N/A

Diluted
383,855,705

N/A


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.


4

SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss (Unaudited)
(in thousands, except per share amounts)



 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2020
2019
Net loss
$
(107,400
)
$
(20,480
)
Other comprehensive loss:
 
 
Foreign currency translation adjustment
1,042


Comprehensive loss
(106,358
)
(20,480
)
Comprehensive loss attributable to noncontrolling interests
(77,392
)

Comprehensive loss attributable to SmileDirectClub, Inc.
$
(28,966
)
$
(20,480
)

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.



5


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Equity (Deficit) (Unaudited)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


 
 
SDC Financial (Prior to Reorganization Transactions)
 
Additional Paid in Capital
Warrants
Accumulated Deficit
Permanent Equity (Deficit)
Temporary Equity (Deficit)
 
Units
Amount
Units
Amount
Balance at December 31, 2018
108,878
 
$
57,677
 
369
 
$
315
 
$
(148,429
)
$
(90,437
)
$
388,634

Net income prior to Reorganization Transactions
 
 
 
 
(20,480
)
(20,480
)

Preferred Unit redemption accretion
 
 
 
 


9,712

Equity-based compensation
 
7,827
 
 
 

7,827


Balance at March 31, 2019
108,878
 
$
65,504
 
369
 
$
315
 
$
(168,909
)
$
(103,090
)
$
398,346


 
SmileDirectClub, Inc. Stockholders Equity
 
Class A Shares
Class B Shares
Class A Amount
Class B Amount
Additional Paid-in Capital
Accumulated Deficit
Noncontrolling Interest
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Total
Balance at December 31, 2019
103,303,674

279,474,505

$
10

$
28

$
447,866

$
(114,513
)
$
125,166

$
(272
)
$
458,285

Net loss





(29,250
)
(78,150
)

(107,400
)
Issuance of Class A shares in connection with RSU vesting
862,633









Issuance of Class B shares in connection with warrant exercise

1,326,736





922


922

Exchange of Class B common stock for Class A common stock
4,346,355

(4,346,355
)
1

(1
)
891


(891
)


Equity-based compensation




16,396




16,396

Equity-based payments subsequent to Reorganization Transactions




(3,067
)



(3,067
)
Foreign currency translation adjustment






758

284

1,042

Other




(1,040
)



(1,040
)
Balance at March 31, 2020
108,512,662

276,454,886

$
11

$
27

$
461,046

$
(143,763
)
$
47,805

$
12

$
365,138


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.



6

SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows (Unaudited)
(in thousands)


 
Three Months Ended March 31,
2020
2019
Operating Activities
 
 
Net loss
$
(107,400
)
$
(20,480
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
11,442

4,655

Deferred loan cost amortization
628

176

Equity-based compensation
16,396

7,827

Other non-cash operating activities
1,971

1,811

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
Accounts receivable
421

(52,119
)
Inventories
(9,756
)
(3,548
)
Prepaid and other current assets
3,459

(513
)
Accounts payable
20,348

(6,322
)
Accrued liabilities
(11,506
)
38,824

Due to related parties

(17,171
)
Deferred revenue
3,602

8,076

Net cash used in operating activities
(70,395
)
(38,784
)
Investing Activities
 
 
Purchases of property, equipment, and intangible assets
(28,123
)
(20,601
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(28,123
)
(20,601
)
Financing Activities
 
 
Payment of IPO related costs
(1,155
)

Proceeds from warrant exercise
922


Repurchase of Class A shares to cover employee tax withholdings
(3,067
)

Borrowings on long-term debt
15,800


Principal payments on long-term debt
(6,733
)
(12,778
)
Payments on finance leases
(2,497
)
(354
)
Other
1,224

(228
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
4,494

(13,360
)
Decrease in cash
(94,024
)
(72,745
)
Cash at beginning of period
318,458

313,929

Cash at end of period
$
224,434

$
241,184


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.


7


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)



Note 1—Organization and Basis of Presentation
Organization
SmileDirectClub, Inc. was formed on April 11, 2019 with no operating assets or operations as a Delaware corporation for the purpose of facilitating an initial public offering and other related transactions in order to carry on the business of SDC Financial LLC and its subsidiaries. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company,” “SmileDirectClub,” and similar references refer to SmileDirectClub, Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including SDC Financial LLC and its subsidiaries. “SDC Financial” refers to SDC Financial LLC and “SDC Inc.” refers to SmileDirectClub, Inc. The Company is engaged by its network of doctors to provide a suite of non-clinical administrative support services, including access to and use of its SmileCheck platform, as a dental support organization (“DSO”). For purposes of these notes to interim condensed consolidated financial statements (unaudited), the Company’s affiliated network of dentists and orthodontists is included in the definition of “we,” “us,” “our,” and the “Company” as it relates to any clinical aspect of the member’s treatment. All of the Company’s manufacturing operations are directly or indirectly conducted by Access Dental Lab, LLC (“Access Dental”), one of its operating subsidiaries.

The Company’s direct-to-consumer model provides customers with a customized clear aligner therapy treatment delivered through its teledentistry platform. The Company integrates the marketing, aligner manufacturing, and fulfillment, and provides a proprietary web-based teledentistry platform for the monitoring of treatment by licensed dentists and orthodontists through the completion of a member’s treatment. The Company is headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee and has locations throughout the U.S, Puerto Rico, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the U.K., Ireland, Hong Kong, Germany, and Costa Rica.

SDC Inc. is a holding company. Its sole material asset is its equity interest in SDC Financial which, through its direct and indirect subsidiaries, conducts all of the Company’s operations. SDC Financial is a Delaware limited liability company and wholly owns SmileDirectClub, LLC (“SDC LLC”) (a Tennessee limited liability company) and Access Dental (a Tennessee limited liability company). Because SDC Inc. is the managing member of SDC Financial, SDC Inc. indirectly operates and controls all of the business and affairs of SDC Financial and its subsidiaries.

Initial Public Offering

On September 16, 2019, SDC Inc. completed an initial public offering (“IPO”) of 58,537,000 shares of its Class A common stock at a public offering price of $23.00 per share. SDC Inc. received $1,286 million in proceeds, net of underwriting discounts and commissions. SDC Inc. used substantially all of the net proceeds after expenses to purchase newly-issued membership interest units from SDC Financial.

Reorganization Transactions

In connection with the IPO, the Company completed the following transactions (the “Reorganization Transactions”):

the formation of SDC Inc. as a Delaware corporation to function as the ultimate parent of SmileDirectClub and a publicly traded entity;

SDC Inc.’s acquisition of the pre-IPO membership interest units in SDC Financial (“Pre-IPO Units”) held by certain pre-IPO investors that are taxable as corporations for U.S. federal income tax purposes (“Blockers”), pursuant to a series of mergers (the “Blocker Mergers”) of the Blockers with wholly owned

8


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


subsidiaries of SDC Inc., and the issuance by SDC Inc. to the equityholders of the Blockers shares of Class A common stock as consideration in the Blocker Mergers;

the amendment and restatement of the SDC Financial’s limited liability company operating agreement (the “SDC Financial LLC Agreement”) to, among other things, modify the capital structure of SDC Financial by replacing the different classes of Pre-IPO Units (including restricted Pre-IPO Units held by certain employees) with a single new class of membership interests of SDC Financial (“LLC Units”);
 
the issuance to each of the pre-IPO investors previously holding Pre-IPO Units (including restricted Pre-IPO Units) of a number of shares of SDC Inc. Class B common stock equal to the number of LLC Units held by it;

the issuance to certain employees of cash and shares of Class A common stock pursuant to their Incentive Bonus Agreements (“IBAs”); and

the equitable adjustment, pursuant to their terms, of outstanding warrants to purchase Pre-IPO Units held by two service providers into warrants to acquire LLC Units (together with an equal number of shares of SDC Inc.’s Class B common stock).

Following the completion of the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO, SDC Inc. owns 26.9% of SDC Financial. Holders (other than SDC Inc.) of LLC Units following the consummation of the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO (“Continuing LLC Members”) own the remaining 73.1% of SDC Financial.

SDC Inc. is the sole managing member of SDC Financial and, although SDC Inc. has a minority economic interest in SDC Financial, it has the sole voting power in, and controls the management of, SDC Financial. Accordingly, SDC Inc. consolidated the financial results of SDC Financial and reported a noncontrolling interest in its condensed consolidated financial statements. As the Reorganization Transactions are considered transactions between entities under common control, the financial statements for periods prior to the IPO and Reorganization Transactions have been adjusted to combine the previously separate entities for presentation purposes.

In connection with the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO, the Company entered into a Tax Receivable Agreement (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”) with the Continuing LLC Members, pursuant to which SDC Inc. agreed to pay the Continuing LLC Members 85% of the amount of cash tax savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state, and local income tax or franchise tax that SDC Inc. actually realizes as a result of (a) the increases in tax basis attributable to exchanges of LLC Units by Continuing LLC Members and (b) tax benefits related to imputed interest deemed to be paid by SDC Inc. as a result of the Tax Receivable Agreement.
Basis of Presentation and Consolidation
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01of Regulation S-X of the SEC and, in the opinion of management, reflect all normal recurring adjustments necessary for a fair presentation of results for the unaudited interim periods presented. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted. The results of operations for the interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results to be obtained for the full fiscal year. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in the unaudited condensed financial statements.


9


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


The interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of SDC Inc., which consolidates SDC Financial and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, as well as accounts of contractually affiliated professional corporations (“PCs”) managed by the Company.
The interim condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of variable interest entities in which the Company is the primary beneficiary under the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (‘‘ASC”) Topic 810, Consolidation.” At March 31, 2020, the variable interest entities include 45 dentist owned PCs and at December 31, 2019 the variable interest entities included 44 dentist owned PCs. The Company is a dental service organization and does not engage in the practice of dentistry. All clinical services are provided by dentists and orthodontists who are engaged as independent contractors or otherwise engaged by the dentist-owned PCs. The Company contracts with the PCs and dentists and orthodontists through a suite of agreements, including but not limited to, management services agreements, supply agreements, and licensing agreements, pursuant to which the Company provides the administrative, non-clinical management services to the PCs and independent contractors. The Company has the contractual right to manage the activities that most significantly impact the variable interest entities’ economic performance through these agreements without engaging in the corporate practice of dentistry. Additionally, the Company would absorb substantially all of the expected losses of these entities should they occur. The accompanying consolidated statements of operations reflect the revenue earned and the expenses incurred by the PCs.
All significant intercompany balances and transactions are eliminated in consolidation.
In January 2020, the Company adopted lease accounting guidance as discussed in Note 2 and Note 6 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. Adoption of the new lease accounting guidance had a material impact to the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets and related disclosures, and resulted in the recording of additional right-of-use assets and lease liabilities as of the date of adoption. This guidance was applied using the optional transition method which allowed the Company to not recast comparative financial information but rather recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the effective date in the period of adoption. No material adjustments to retained earnings were made as a result of the adoption of this guidance. Consistent with the optional transition method, the financial information in the condensed consolidated balance sheets prior to the adoption of this new lease accounting guidance has not been adjusted and is therefore not comparable to the current period presented. The standard did not materially impact the Company’s condensed consolidated statements of operations, comprehensive loss, changes in equity (deficit), or cash flows. For additional information, including the required disclosures, related to the impact of adopting this standard, see Note 2 and Note 6 to the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
COVID-19 Pandemic
The impacts of COVID-19 unfolded globally throughout the first quarter of 2020, growing in strength from what the World Health Organization (“WHO”) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January, to an increased threat assessment by the WHO from high to very high in February, culminating with the WHO characterization of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020. In response to COVID-19 and the related containment measures, the Company took the following steps to ensure the health and safety of its employees and its members: transitioned its employees, where possible, to a remote working environment; closed its SmileShops (except in Hong Kong); and implemented enhanced cleaning and sanitizing routines as well as social distancing and other protective measures at its manufacturing facilities. The Company also repurposed certain of its 3D printing capabilities in order to manufacture personal protective equipment at cost for healthcare organizations and government agencies.
While the Company did not incur material disruptions to its business in the first two months of the quarter, the impacts of COVID-19 correlated with its rise as a pandemic intensified in March and materially disrupted the Company’s operations. Specifically, on March 20, 2020, the Company commenced the closure of its SmileShops, which have historically been a key driver in member conversion to aligner sales. This resulted in lower than anticipated revenue growth and a decrease in gross margin. Further, in an effort to fortify the short-term financial

10


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


position of the business, in April the Company took the following actions: reduced its marketing efforts; furloughed much of its headquarters and retail workforce; temporarily suspended cash pay for its executive and leadership teams; and bolstered its business contingency plans. Throughout the remainder of the year, the Company expects to reopen its SmileShops, as and when it is deemed safe to do so, as well as bring back our workforce, in both instances in a manner that is commensurate with the needs of its business and protects the health and safety of its team members and customers.
Note 2—Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Management Use of Estimates
The preparation of the interim condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that impact the reported amounts. On an ongoing basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, including those related to the fair values of financial instruments, useful lives of property, plant and equipment, revenue recognition, equity-based compensation, long-lived assets, and contingent liabilities, among others. Each of these estimates varies in regard to the level of judgment involved and its potential impact on the Company’s financial results. Estimates are considered critical either when a different estimate could have reasonably been used, or where changes in the estimate are reasonably likely to occur from period to period, and such use or change would materially impact the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Revenue Recognition
The Company’s revenues are derived primarily from sales of aligners, impression kits, whitening gel, and retainers, and interest earned through its SmilePay financing program. Revenue is recorded for all customers based on the amount that is expected to be collected, which considers implicit price concessions, discounts and returns.
The Company identifies a performance obligation as distinct if both of the following criteria are met: the customer can benefit from the good or service either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the customer and the entity’s promise to transfer the good or service to the customer is separately identifiable from other promises in the contract. Determining the standalone selling price (“SSP”) and allocation of consideration from a contract to the individual performance obligations, and the appropriate timing of revenue recognition, is the result of significant qualitative and quantitative judgments. Management considers a variety of factors such as historical sales, usage rates (the number of times a customer is expected to order additional aligners), costs, and expected margin, which may vary over time depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each performance obligation, in making these estimates. Further, the Company’s process for estimating usage rates requires significant judgment and evaluation of inputs, including historical data and forecasted usages. Changes in the allocation of the SSP between performance obligations will not affect the amount of total revenues recognized for a particular contract. The Company uses the expected cost plus a margin approach to determine the SSP for performance obligations, and discounts are allocated to each performance obligation based on the relative standalone selling price. However, any material changes in the allocation of the SSP could impact the timing of revenue recognition, which may have a material effect on the Company’s financial position and result of operations as the contract consideration is allocated to each performance obligation, delivered or undelivered, at the inception of the contract based on the SSP of each distinct performance obligation.
The Company estimates the amount expected to be collected based upon management’s assessment of historical write-offs and expected net collections, business and economic conditions, and other collection indicators. Management relies on the results of detailed reviews of historical write-offs and collections as a primary source of information in estimating the amount of contract consideration expected to be collected and implicit price concessions. Uncollectible receivables are written-off in the period management believes it has exhausted its ability to collect payment from the customer. The Company believes its analysis provides reasonable estimates of its revenues and valuations of its accounts receivable.

11


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


A description of the revenue recognition for each product sold by the Company is detailed below.
Aligners and Impression Kits: The Company enters into contracts with customers for aligner sales that involve multiple future performance obligations. The Company determined that aligner sales comprise the following distinct performance obligations: initial aligners, modified aligners, refinement aligners, and retainers for international sales only which can occur at any time throughout the treatment plan (which is typically between five to ten months) upon the direction of and prescription from the treating dentist or orthodontist.
The Company allocates revenues for each performance obligation based on its SSP and recognizes the revenues as control of the performance obligation is transferred upon shipment of the aligners. The Company recognizes aligner revenue on amounts expected to be collected during the course of the treatment plan.
The Company bills its customers either upfront for the full cost of aligners or monthly through its SmilePay financing program, which involves a down payment and a fixed amount per month for up to 24 months. The Company’s accounts receivable related to the SmilePay financing program are reported at the amount expected to be collected on the consolidated balance sheets, which considers implicit price concessions. Financing revenue from its accounts receivable is recognized based on the contractual market interest rate with the customer, net of implicit price concessions. There are no fees or origination costs included in accounts receivable.
The Company sells impression kits to its customers as an alternative to an in-person visit at one of its retail locations where the customer receives a free oral digital imaging of their teeth. The Company combines the sales of its impression kits with aligner sales and recognizes the revenues as control of the performance obligation is transferred upon shipment of the aligners. The Company estimates the amount of impression kit sales that do not result in an aligner therapy treatment plan and recognizes such revenue when aligner conversion becomes remote.
Retainers and Other Products: The Company sells retainers and other products (such as whitening gel and tooth brushes) to customers, which can be purchased on the Company’s website or certain retail outlets. The sales of these products are independent and separate from the customer’s decision to purchase aligner therapy for domestic sales. The Company determined that the transfer of control for these performance obligations occurs as the title of such products passes to the customer.
The following table summarizes revenue recognized for each product sold by the Company:
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2020
2019
Aligner revenue, net of implicit price concessions
$
170,935

$
165,253

Financing revenue, net of implicit price concessions
12,722

9,110

Retainers and other products revenue
12,993

3,373

Total revenue
$
196,650

$
177,736

Implicit price concessions included in total revenue
$
23,370

$
18,365


Deferred Revenue: Deferred revenue represents the Company’s contract liability for performance obligations associated with sales of aligners. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recognized $196,650 and $177,736 of revenue, respectively, of which $12,108 and $11,225 was previously included in deferred revenue on the consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
Shipping and Handling Costs
Shipping and handling charges are recorded in cost of revenues in the consolidated statements of operations upon shipment. The Company incurred approximately $5,391 and $4,656 in outsourced shipping expenses for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.

12


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Cost of Revenues
Cost of revenues includes the total cost of products produced and sold. Such costs include direct materials, direct labor, overhead costs (occupancy costs, indirect labor, and depreciation), fees retained by doctors, freight and duty expenses associated with moving materials from vendors to the Company’s facilities and from its facilities to the customers, and adjustments for shrinkage (physical inventory losses), lower of cost or net realizable value, slow moving product and excess inventory quantities.
Marketing and Selling Expenses
Marketing and selling expenses include direct online and offline marketing and advertising costs, costs associated with intraoral imaging services, selling labor, and occupancy costs of SmileShop locations. All marketing and selling expenses are expensed as incurred. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company incurred marketing and selling costs of $142,324 and $95,733, respectively.
General and Administrative Expenses
General and administrative expenses include payroll and benefit costs for corporate team members, equity-based compensation expenses, occupancy costs of corporate facilities, bank charges and costs associated with credit and debit card interchange fees, outside service fees, and other administrative costs, such as computer maintenance, supplies, travel, and lodging.
Depreciation and Amortization
Depreciation includes expenses related to the Company’s property, plant and equipment, including finance leases. Amortization includes expenses related to definite-lived intangible assets and capitalized software. Depreciation and amortization are calculated using the straight-line method over the useful lives of the related assets, ranging from three to ten years. Leasehold improvements are amortized using the straight-line method over the shorter of the related lease terms or their useful lives. Depreciation and amortization are included in cost of revenues, selling expenses, and general and administrative expenses depending on the purpose of the related asset. Depreciation and amortization by financial statement line item were as follows:
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2020
2019
Cost of revenues
$
5,554

$
2,087

Marketing and selling expenses
1,643

877

General and administrative expenses
4,245

1,691

Total
$
11,442

$
4,655


Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The Company measures the fair value of financial instruments as the price that would be received from selling an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. Fair value is estimated by applying the following hierarchy, which prioritizes the inputs used to measure fair value into three levels and bases the categorization within the hierarchy upon the lowest level of input that is available and significant to the fair value measurement:
Level 1 — Quoted (unadjusted) prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 — Observable inputs other than quoted prices included in Level 1, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets; quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active; or other inputs that are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the asset or liability.

13


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Level 3 — Inputs that are generally unobservable and typically reflect management’s estimate of assumptions that market participants would use in pricing the asset or liability.
The Company’s financial instruments consist of cash, receivables, accounts payable, debt instruments, and derivative financial instruments. Due to their short-term nature, the carrying values of cash, current receivables, trade payables, and debt instruments approximate current fair value at each balance sheet date. The derivative financial instruments are held at fair value, and the preferred units are recorded at the accreted redemption value. The Company had $166,248 and $150,448 in borrowings under its debt facilities (as discussed in Note 9) as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Based on current market interest rates (Level 2 inputs), the carrying value of the borrowings under its debt facilities approximates fair value for each period reported.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company accounts for derivative financial instruments in accordance with applicable accounting standards for such instruments and hedging activities, which require that all derivatives are recorded on the balance sheet at fair value. The accounting for changes in the fair value of derivatives depends on the intended use of the derivative, whether the Company has elected to designate a derivative in a hedging relationship and apply hedge accounting, and whether the hedging relationship has satisfied the criteria necessary to apply hedge accounting. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to changes in the fair value of an asset, liability, or firm commitment attributable to a particular risk are considered fair value hedges. Derivatives designated and qualifying as a hedge of the exposure to variability in expected future cash flows, or other types of forecasted transactions, are considered cash flow hedges. Hedge accounting generally provides for the matching of the timing of gain or loss recognition on the hedging instrument with the recognition of the changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk in a fair value hedge or the earnings effect of the hedged forecasted transactions in a cash flow hedge. The Company had no outstanding derivatives at March 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019; however, the Company may enter into derivative contracts that are intended to economically hedge a certain portion of its risk, even though hedge accounting does not apply or the Company elects not to apply the hedge accounting standards.
Certain Risks and Uncertainties
The Company’s operating results depend to a significant extent on the ability to market and develop its products. The life cycles of the Company’s products are difficult to estimate due, in part, to the effect of future product enhancements and competition. The inability to successfully develop and market the Company’s products as a result of competition or other factors would have a material adverse effect on its business, financial condition, and results of operations.
The Company provides credit to customers in the normal course of business. The Company maintains reserves for potential credit losses and such losses have been within management’s expectations. No individual customer accounted for 1% or more of the Company’s accounts receivable at March 31, 2020 or December 31, 2019, or net revenue for the three or three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.
Some of the Company’s products are considered medical devices and are subject to extensive regulation in the U.S. and internationally. The regulations to which the Company is subject are complex. Regulatory changes could result in restrictions on the Company’s ability to carry on or expand its operations, higher than anticipated costs or lower than anticipated sales. The failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements may have a material adverse impact on the Company.
The Company’s reliance on international operations exposes it to related risks and uncertainties, including difficulties in staffing and managing international operations, such as hiring and retaining qualified personnel; political, social and economic instability; interruptions and limitations in telecommunication services; product and material transportation delays or disruption; trade restrictions and changes in tariffs; import and export license

14


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


requirements and restrictions; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; and potential adverse tax consequences. If any of these risks materialize, operating results may be harmed.
The Company purchases certain inventory from sole suppliers, and the inability of any supplier or manufacturer to fulfill the supply requirements could materially and adversely impact its future operating results.
Cash
Cash consists of all highly-liquid investments with original maturities of less than three months. Cash is held in various financial institutions in the U.S. and internationally.
Inventories
Inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value using the first-in, first-out method of inventory accounting. Inventory consists of raw materials for producing impression kits and aligners and finished goods. Inventory is net of shrinkage and obsolescence.
Property, Plant and Equipment, net
Property, plant and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization. Routine maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred. At the time property, plant and equipment are retired from service, the cost and accumulated depreciation or amortization are removed from the respective accounts and the related gains or losses are reflected in the consolidated statements of operations.
Leases
January 1, 2020, the Company adopted the new leases standard using the modified retrospective transition method, which requires that it recognizes leases differently pre and post-adoption. See “Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements—ASU No. 2016-02” below for more information. We categorize leases at their inception as either operating or finance leases. Lease agreements cover certain retail locations, office space, warehouse and distribution space and equipment. Operating leases are included in operating right-of-use assets, other current liabilities, and long-term right-of-use operating lease liabilities in our condensed consolidated balance sheet as of March 31, 2020. Finance leases are included in property, plant and equipment, net, current portion of long-term debt, and long-term debt.
Leased assets represent our right to use an underlying asset for the lease term, and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating lease right-of-use assets and liabilities are recognized at commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses a secured incremental borrowing rate as the discount rate for determining the present value of lease payments when the rate implicit in the contract is not readily determinable. Leases that have a term of twelve months or less upon commencement date are considered short-term in nature. Accordingly, short-term leases are not included on the condensed consolidated balance sheets and are expensed on a straight-line basis over the lease term, which commences on the date we have the right to control the property.
Internally Developed Software Costs
The Company generally provides services to its customers using software developed for internal use. The costs that are incurred to develop such software are expensed as incurred during the preliminary project stage. Once certain criteria have been met, direct costs incurred in developing or obtaining computer software are capitalized. Training and maintenance costs are expensed as incurred. Capitalized software costs are included in property, plant and equipment in the consolidated balance sheets and are amortized over a three-year period. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company capitalized $3,758 and $2,154, respectively, of internally developed software costs. Amortization expense for internally developed software was $1,497 and $470 for the three months ended March 31, 2020, and 2019, respectively.

15


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Impairment
The Company evaluates long-lived assets (including finite-lived intangible assets) for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset group may not be recoverable. An asset or asset group is considered impaired if its carrying amount exceeds the future undiscounted net cash flows that the asset or asset group is expected to generate. Factors the Company considers important which could trigger an impairment review include significant negative industry or economic trends, significant loss of customers and changes in the competitive environment. If an asset or asset group is considered to be impaired, the impairment to be recognized is calculated as the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset or asset group exceeds its fair market value. The Company’s estimates of future cash flows attributable to long-lived assets require significant judgment based on its historical and anticipated results and are subject to many assumptions. The estimation of fair value utilizing a discounted cash flow approach includes numerous uncertainties which require significant judgment when making assumptions of expected growth rates and the selection of discount rates, as well as assumptions regarding general economic and business conditions, and the structure that would yield the highest economic value, among other factors.
Debt Issuance Costs
The Company records debt issuance costs related to its term debt as direct deductions from the carrying amount of the debt. The costs are amortized to interest expense over the life of the debt using the effective interest method.
Income Taxes
SDC Inc. is the managing member of SDC Financial and, as a result, consolidates the financial results of SDC Financial in the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. SDC Financial and its subsidiaries are limited liability companies and have elected to be taxed as partnerships for income tax purposes except for a subsidiary, SDC Holding, LLC (‘‘SDC Holding”) and its domestic and foreign subsidiaries, which are taxed as corporations. As such, SDC Financial does not pay any federal income taxes, as any income or loss is included in the tax returns of the individual members. SDC Financial does pay state income tax in certain jurisdictions, and the Company’s income tax provision in the consolidated financial statements reflects the income taxes for those states. Additionally, certain wholly-owned entities taxed as corporations are subject to federal, state, and foreign income taxes, in the jurisdictions in which they operate, and accruals for such taxes are included in the consolidated financial statements. The Company further evaluates deferred tax assets in each jurisdiction and recognizes associated benefits when positive evidence of realization exceeds negative evidence, and otherwise records valuation allowances as necessary. 
Tax Receivable Agreement
In connection with the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO, the Company entered into a Tax Receivable Agreement (the “Tax Receivable Agreement”) with the Continuing LLC Members, pursuant to which SDC Inc. agreed to pay the Continuing LLC Members 85% of the amount of cash tax savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state, and local income tax or franchise tax that SDC Inc. actually realizes as a result of (a) the increases in tax basis attributable to exchanges by Continuing LLC Members and (b) tax benefits related to imputed interest deemed to be paid by SDC Inc. as a result of the Tax Receivable Agreement. The Company recognizes this contingent liability in its consolidated financial statements when amounts become probable as to incurrence and estimable in amount.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In September 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (‘‘FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (‘‘ASU”) 2016-13, “Financial Instruments—Credit Losses” (Topic 326). The FASB issued this update to provide financial statement users with more decision-useful information about the expected credit losses on financial instruments and other commitments to extend credit held by a reporting entity at each reporting date. The amendments in this update replace the existing guidance of incurred loss impairment methodology with an approach that reflects

16


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. In November 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-19, “Codification Improvements to Topic 326, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses,” which clarifies the scope of guidance in the ASU 2016-13. The updated guidance is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption of the update is permitted in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this guidance on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement,” which amends the disclosure requirements for fair value measurements by removing, modifying and adding certain disclosures. This guidance is effective for years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance to have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, “Intangibles—Goodwill and Other—Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That Is a Service Contract.” This update clarifies the accounting treatment for fees paid by a customer in a cloud computing arrangement (hosting arrangement) by providing guidance for determining when the arrangement includes a software license. This guidance is effective for years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. The amendments may be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. The Company is currently assessing the impact that adoption of this guidance will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In January 2020, the Company adopted FASB ASU 2016-02 and subsequent updates, collectively referred to as ‘‘Leases (Topic 842).” This update requires a dual approach for lessee accounting under which a lessee will account for leases as finance leases or operating leases. Both finance leases and operating leases will result in the lessee recognizing a right-of-use asset and a corresponding lease liability on its balance sheet, with differing methodology for income statement recognition. In July 2018, ASU 2018-10, ‘‘Codification Improvements to Topic 842, Leases,” was issued to provide more detailed guidance and additional clarification for implementing ASU 2016-02. Furthermore, in July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, ‘‘Leases (Topic 842): Targeted Improvements,” which provides an optional transition method in addition to the existing modified retrospective transition method by allowing a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption. The Company adopted the package of practical expedients in transition, which permits it to not reassess its conclusions pertaining to lease identification, lease classification, and initial direct costs on leases that commenced prior to the adoption of the new standard. The Company also elected the ongoing practical expedient to not recognize operating lease right-of-use assets and operating lease liabilities related to short-term leases. The Company did not elect the use-of-hindsight practical expedient. The Company elected to not separate lease and non-lease components for certain classes of assets including real estate and equipment. As a result of adopting Topic 842, the Company recognized net operating lease right-of-use assets of $45,076 and operating lease liabilities of $44,807 as of the effective date. As part of adopting Topic 842 and the Company’s election to not separate lease and non-lease components, the Company increased its finance lease asset $3,791 and related liability $4,378 as of the effective date to include non-lease components. The cumulative effect of adding the non-lease components to finance leases upon adoption resulted in an immaterial adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of January 1, 2020. The standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s results of operations or cash flows.
In January 2020, the Company adopted FASB ASU 2018-07, “Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting,” which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from non-employees. The adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

17


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Note 3—Inventories
Inventories are comprised of the following:
 
March 31, 2020
December 31, 2019
Raw materials
$
8,530

$
5,950

Finished goods
19,657

12,481

Total inventories
$
28,187


$18,431


Note 4—Prepaid and other assets
Prepaid and other assets are comprised of the following:
 
March 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
Prepaid expenses
$
6,833

$
10,503

Deposits to vendors
2,917

3,132

Other
665

551

Total prepaid and other current assets
$
10,415

$
14,186

Prepaid expenses, non-current
$
1,354

$
1,308

Deposits to vendors, non-current
3,665

3,346

Indefinite-lived intangible assets
6,217

6,217

Other intangible assets, net
372

428

Total other assets
$
11,608

$
11,299



In March 2019, the Company purchased an intangible asset related to manufacturing. The Company evaluates the remaining useful life and carrying value of this indefinite-lived intangible asset at least annually or when events and circumstances warrant such a review, to determine whether significant events or changes in circumstances indicate that a change in the useful life or impairment in value may have occurred. There were no impairment charges during the three months ended March 31, 2020.

Note 5—Property, plant and equipment, net
Property, plant and equipment were comprised of the following:
 
March 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
Lab and SmileShop equipment
$
86,091

$
79,103

Computer equipment and software
58,301

48,401

Leasehold improvements
21,588

13,275

Furniture and fixtures
14,765

13,152

Vehicles
6,069

2,660

Construction in progress
50,019

60,317

Property, plant and equipment, gross
236,833

216,908

Less: accumulated depreciation
(52,121
)
(39,365
)
Property, plant and equipment, net
$
184,712

$
177,543




18


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


The carrying values of assets under finance leases were $27,975 and $26,501 as of March 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively, net of accumulated depreciation of $7,953 and $4,670, respectively.

Note 6—Leases
The Company adopted ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), which requires leases with durations greater than 12 months to be recognized on the balance sheet, effective January 1, 2020, using the modified retrospective approach. Prior period financial statement amounts and disclosures have not been adjusted to reflect the provisions of the new standard. The Company elected the package of transition provisions available which allowed us to carryforward our historical assessments of (1) whether contracts are or contain leases, (2) lease classification and (3) initial direct costs.
The Company leases property and equipment under finance and operating leases. For leases with terms greater than 12 months, the Company records the related right-of-use assets and right-of-use obligations at the present value of lease payments over the term. Certain of the Company’s leases include rental escalation clauses and renewal options that are factored into our determination of lease payments when appropriate. Certain of the Company’s leased store locations have variable payments based upon scan volume as well as other variable property related costs. The Company does not separate lease and non-lease components of contracts.
Generally, the Company uses its estimated incremental borrowing rate to discount the lease payments based on information available at lease commencement, as most of its leases do not provide a readily determinable implicit interest rate. As substantially all of the Company’s leases do not provide an implicit rate, the Company estimates its collateralized incremental borrowing rate based upon a synthetic credit rating and yield curve analysis at commencement or modification date in determining the present value of lease payments.
The following table presents our lease-related assets and liabilities at March 31, 2020:
Leases Assets and Liabilities
Balance Sheet Classification
March 31, 2020

Assets:
 
 
Operating leases
Operating lease right-of-use asset
$
43,105

Finance leases
Property, plant, and equipment, net
27,975

 
 
$
71,080

Liabilities:
 
 
Operating leases
Other current liabilities
$
7,156

Finance leases
Current portion of long-term debt
10,182

Operating leases
Operating lease liabilities, net of current portion
36,409

Finance leases
Long-term debt, net of current portion

19,511

 
 
$
73,258

Weighted average remaining term:
 
 
Operating leases
 
6.3 years
Finance leases
 
2.3 years
Weighted average discount rate:
 
 
Operating leases
 
5.70
%
Finance leases
 
7.50
%
(1) Finance lease assets are recorded net of accumulated amortization of $7,953 as of March 31, 2020.
(2) Upon adoption of the new lease standard, discount rates used for existing leases were established at January 1, 2020.


19


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


The following table presents certain information related to lease expense for finance and operating leases:
Expense Category
Statement of Operations Classification
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Finance lease expense:
 
 
Amortization of leased assets
Cost of revenues
$
2,497

Interest of lease liabilities
Interest expense
586

Operating leases(3)
 
2,508

Short-term lease expense(3)
 
7,642

Variable lease expense(3)
 
2,291

Total lease expense
 
$
15,524

(3) Expenses are included in “Cost of revenues”, “Marketing and selling expenses”, or “General and administrative expenses” in our condensed consolidated statements of operations, depending on the purpose of the related asset.

Other Information
The following table presents supplemental cash flow information:
 
Three Months Ended March 31, 2020
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities:
 
Cash used in operating activities
$
3,094

Cash used in investing activities
$

Cash used in financing activities
$
2,497


Maturities of Lease Liabilities
The following table reconciles the undiscounted cash flows to the finance lease liabilities and operating lease liabilities recorded on the condensed consolidated balance sheet at March 31, 2020:
 
Finance Leases
Operating Leases
2020 (remaining)
$
9,115

$
6,955

2021
11,209

9,482

2022
6,859

7,622

2023

6,991

2024

6,158

2025 and thereafter

15,404

Total minimum lease payments
27,183

52,612

Residual value
5,661


Amount representing interest
(3,151
)
(9,047
)
Present value of future minimum lease payments
29,693

43,565

Less: current portion
(10,182
)
(7,156
)
Long-term lease liabilities
$
19,511

$
36,409




20


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Note 7—Accrued liabilities
Accrued liabilities were comprised of the following:
 
March 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
Accrued marketing costs
$
28,037

$
31,804

Accrued payroll and payroll related expenses
19,691

25,019

Accrued sales tax and related costs
7,693

6,660

Other
28,953

29,856

Total accrued liabilities
$
84,374

$
93,339



Note 8—Income taxes

SDC Inc. is the managing member of SDC Financial and, as a result, consolidates the financial results of SDC Financial. SDC Financial and its subsidiaries are limited liability companies and have elected to be taxed as partnerships for income tax purposes except for a subsidiary, SDC Holding and certain of its domestic and foreign subsidiaries, are taxed as corporations. The Company files income tax returns in the U.S. federal, various states and foreign jurisdictions. Any taxable income or loss generated by SDC Financial is passed through to and included in the taxable income or loss of its members, including SDC Inc., generally on a pro rata basis or otherwise under the terms of the SDC Financial LLC Agreement. The Company is subject to U.S. federal income taxes, in addition to state and local income taxes with respect to its allocable share of any taxable income or loss of SDC Financial, as well as any stand-alone income or loss generated by SDC Inc.

The Company’s U.S. federal and state income tax returns for the tax years 2015 and beyond remain subject to examination by the Internal Revenue Service. The Company also has operations in Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Canada, Australia, the U.K., the E.U., Ireland, Hong Kong and New Zealand with tax filings in each foreign jurisdiction. With respect to state and local jurisdictions, the Company and its subsidiaries are typically subject to examination for several years after the income tax returns have been filed. The Internal Revenue Service has commenced an examination of the SDC, LLC’s U.S. income tax return for 2017. We anticipate this audit will conclude within the next twelve months. Although the outcome of tax audits is always uncertain, the Company believes that adequate amounts of tax, interest and penalties have been provided for in the accompanying consolidated financial statements for any adjustments that may be incurred due to state or local audits and uncertain tax positions. The Company is also subject to withholding taxes in foreign jurisdictions. The Company’s income tax expense may vary from the expense that would be expected based on statutory rates due principally to its organizational structure and recognition of valuation allowances against deferred tax assets.

21


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


The income tax provision was as follows:
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2020
2019
Current:
 
 
Federal
$
1,698

$

State
(67
)
20

Foreign
200


Current income tax provision
$
1,831

$
20

Deferred:
 
 
Federal
$

$

State
143


Foreign


Deferred income tax provision
$
143


Total income tax provision
$
1,974

$
20


At March 31, 2020 the Company had unused federal net operating loss carryforwards (tax effected) for federal income tax purposes of approximately $16,921, which can be carried forward indefinitely and may be used to offset future taxable income. In addition, the Company had unused net operating loss carryforwards (tax effected) for state income tax purposes of approximately $11,979, which expire from 2029 through 2034. The Company also had unused net operating loss carryforwards (tax effected) for foreign income tax purposes of approximately $1,061. Additionally, the Company has certain other deferred tax assets related to potential future tax benefits. All deferred tax assets are evaluated using positive and negative evidence as to their future realization. The Company considers recent historic losses to be significant negative evidence, and as such, records a valuation allowance against substantially all of its deferred tax assets.
As of March 31, 2020, the Company maintained a full valuation allowance of approximately $205,958 against its deferred tax assets. If there is a change in the Company’s assessment of the amount of deferred income tax assets that is realizable, adjustments to the valuation allowance will be made in future periods.

Tax Receivable Agreement
The Company expects to obtain an increase in its share of the tax basis in the net assets of SDC Financial when LLC Units are redeemed from or exchanged by Continuing LLC Members. The Company intends to treat any redemptions and exchanges of LLC Units as direct purchases of LLC Units for U.S. federal income tax purposes. These increases in tax basis may reduce the amounts that it would otherwise pay in the future to various tax authorities. They may also decrease gains (or increase losses) on future dispositions of certain capital assets to the extent tax basis is allocated to those capital assets.

In connection with the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO, the Company entered into the Tax Receivable Agreement with the Continuing LLC Members. The Tax Receivable Agreement provides for the payment by SDC Inc. of 85% of the amount of any tax benefits that SDC Inc. actually realizes, or in some cases is deemed to realize, as a result of (i) increases in SDC Inc.’s share of the tax basis in the net assets of SDC Financial resulting from any redemptions or exchanges of LLC Units, (ii) tax basis increases attributable to payments made under the Tax Receivable Agreement, and (iii) deductions attributable to imputed interest pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement (the ‘‘TRA Payments”). The Company expects to benefit from the remaining 15% of any of cash savings, if any, that it realizes.

During the year ended December 31, 2019, the Company acquired an aggregate of $635,690 in LLC Units in connection with the redemption of certain Continuing LLC Members, which resulted in an increase in the tax basis

22


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


of the assets of SDC Financial subject to the provisions of the Tax Receivable Agreement. The Company has not recognized any additional liability under the Tax Receivable Agreement after concluding it was not probable that such TRA Payments would be paid based on its estimates of future taxable income. No payments were made to the Continuing LLC Members pursuant to the Tax Receivable Agreement during the three month period ended March 31, 2020.

The amounts payable under the Tax Receivable Agreement will vary depending upon a number of factors, including the amount, character, and timing of the taxable income of SDC Inc. in the future. If the valuation allowance recorded against the deferred tax assets applicable to the tax attributes referenced above is released in a future period, the Tax Receivable Agreement liability may be considered probable at that time and recorded within earnings.
Note 9—Long-Term Debt
The Company’s debt and capital lease obligations are comprised of the following:
 
March 31,
2020
December 31,
2019
JPM Credit Facility, net of unamortized financing costs of $1,885 and $2,513, respectively
164,363

147,935

Align redemption promissory note
27,357

34,090

Capital lease obligations (Note 6)
29,693

26,501

Total debt
221,413

208,526

Less current portion
(37,539
)
(35,376
)
Total long-term debt
$
183,874

$
173,150


JPM Credit Facility
In June 2019, the Company entered into a loan and security agreement with JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A., as the administrative agent, the collateral agent and a lender (the “JPM Credit Facility”), providing a secured revolving credit facility in an initial aggregate maximum principal amount of $500 million with the potential to increase the aggregate principal amount that may be borrowed up to an additional $250 million with the consent of the lenders participating in such increase. Availability under the JPM Credit Facility is based on, among other things, the amount of eligible retail installment sale contracts.
The JPM Credit Facility provides for interest on the outstanding principal balance of a spread above prevailing commercial paper rates or, to the extent the advance is not funded by a conduit lender through the issuance of commercial paper, LIBOR. The JPM Credit Facility also provides for an unused fee based on the unused portion of the total aggregate commitment. There is no amortization schedule. Upon expiration of the JPM Credit Facility on December 14, 2020 (unless earlier terminated or extended in accordance with its terms), any outstanding principal will be due in full on the final maturity date six months following the expiration.
The Company recorded $6,188 related to deferred financing costs of the JPM Credit Facility. During the three months ended March 31, 2020, the Company amortized under the effective interest rate method $628 of deferred financing costs.
The proceeds of the JPM Credit Facility were used to repay all outstanding amounts under the previous financing agreement with TCW Direct Lending (as amended, the ‘‘TCW Credit Facility”), including repurchasing warrants to the lenders under the TCW Credit Facility, and for working capital and other corporate purposes.
The JPM Credit Facility is secured by, among other assets, a first-priority security interest in certain receivables and certain intellectual property. As of March 31, 2020, the Company had $276,594 of its receivables collateralized as part of the JPM Credit Facility.

23


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


The JPM Credit Facility contains certain covenants. The material financial covenants, ratios or tests contained in the JPM Credit Facility are as follows:
The Company must maintain a monthly minimum tangible net worth not less than $150,000.
The Company must maintain a monthly minimum liquidity, as defined in the agreement, not less than the greater of $75,000 and 5% of consolidated total assets.
The Company must maintain a monthly leverage ratio, as defined in the agreement, not greater than 4:1.
The Company must maintain a minimum credit scores, charge-off and collection ratios on the portfolio of its SmilePay receivables.
As of March 31, 2020, the Company had $166,248 outstanding and was in compliance with all covenants in the JPM Credit Facility.
New HPS Credit Facility
On May 12, 2020, we entered into our new HPS Credit Facility, as defined below, providing a five-year secured term loan facility in an initial aggregate maximum principal amount of $400,000, with the ability to request incremental term loans of up to an additional aggregate principal amount of $100,000 with the consent of the lenders participating in such increase. The proceeds of the HPS Credit Facility were used to repay all outstanding amounts under the previous JPM Credit Facility and for working capital and other corporate purposes. For a complete discussion of the new HPS Credit Facility, see “Note 18-Subsequent Events” in the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Align Redemption Promissory Note
In connection with the required redemption of Align’s 20,710 Pre-IPO Units described in Note 16, the Company entered into a promissory note with Align Technology, Inc. (“Align”). Under the terms of the promissory note, the Company will make monthly payments of $2,311 to Align through March 2021. The promissory note bears annual interest of 2.52% which is included in the consolidated statement of operations. As of March 31, 2020, the Company has $27,357 outstanding under this promissory note.
Note 10—Noncontrolling Interests
SDC Inc. is the sole managing member of SDC Financial and consolidates the financial results of SDC Financial. Therefore, SDC Inc. reports a noncontrolling interest based on the common units of SDC Financial held by the Continuing LLC Members. Changes in SDC Inc.’s ownership interest in SDC Financial, while SDC Inc. retains its controlling interest in SDC Financial, are accounted for as equity transactions. As such, future redemptions or direct exchanges of LLC Units by the Continuing LLC Members will result in a change in ownership and reduce or increase the amount recorded as noncontrolling interest and increase or decrease additional paid-in capital when SDC Financial has positive or negative net assets, respectively. As of March 31, 2020, SDC Inc. had 108,512,662 shares of Class A common stock outstanding, which resulted in an equivalent amount of ownership of LLC Units by SDC Inc. As of March 31, 2020, SDC Inc. had a 28.2% economic ownership interest in SDC Financial.
Note 11—Variable Interest Entities

Upon completion of the IPO, SDC Inc. became the managing member of SDC Financial with 100% of the management and voting power in SDC Financial. In its capacity as managing member, SDC Inc. has the sole authority to make decisions on behalf of SDC Financial and bind SDC Financial to signed agreements. Further, SDC Financial maintains separate capital accounts for its investors as a mechanism for tracking earnings and subsequent distribution rights. Accordingly, management concluded that SDC Financial is determined to be a limited partnership or similar legal entity as contemplated in ASC 810.


24


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Furthermore, management concluded that SDC Inc. is SDC Financials’ primary beneficiary. As the primary beneficiary, SDC Inc. consolidates the results of SDC Financial for financial reporting purposes under the variable interest consolidation model guidance in ASC 810.

SDC Inc.’s relationship with SDC Financial results in no recourse to the general credit of SDC Inc. SDC Financial and its consolidated subsidiaries represents SDC Inc.’s sole investment. SDC Inc. shares in the income and losses of SDC Financial in direct proportion to SDC Inc.’s ownership percentage. Further, SDC Inc. has no contractual requirement to provide financial support to SDC Financial.

SDC Inc.’s financial position, performance and cash flows effectively represent those of SDC Financial as of and for the period ended March 31, 2020. Prior to the IPO and Reorganization Transactions, SDC Inc. was not impacted by SDC Financial.
Note 12—Incentive Compensation Plans
In connection with the IPO, the Company adopted the 2019 Omnibus Incentive Compensation Plan (the 2019 Plan) in August 2019. The Companys board of directors or the compensation committee of the board of directors, acting as plan administrator, administers the 2019 Plan and the awards granted under it. The Company reserved a total of 38,486,295 shares of Class A common stock for issuance pursuant to the 2019 Plan. The Company currently has two types of share-based compensation awards outstanding under the 2019 Plan: Class A common stock options (Options) and Class A restricted stock units (RSUs), including those issued pursuant to IBAs.
Class A Common Stock Options
Options activity was as follows during the three months ended March 31, 2020:
 
 
Weighted
Weighted
 
 
Number of
Average
Average Remaining
Aggregate
 
Options
Exercise Price
Contractual Term
Intrinsic Value
Outstanding beginning of period
1,744,556

$
23.00

9.7

$

Granted




Exercised




Expired




Forfeited




Outstanding at March 31, 2020
1,744,556

$
23.00

9.4

$

Exercisable at March 31, 2020

$


$

 
 
 
 
 

The Company estimates fair value of the Options using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. Inputs to the Black-Scholes option pricing model include an expected dividend yield of 0%, expected volatility of 45%, risk-free interest rate of 1.7% and an expected term of 6.0 years or 6.5 years, pursuant to vesting terms, resulting in a weighted average fair value of $10.29 or $10.68 per Option pursuant to vesting terms. As of March 31, 2020, unrecognized compensation expense related to the Options was $14,913. This expense is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.4 years.
Expected dividend yield - An increase in the expected dividend yield would decrease compensation expense.
Expected volatility - This is a measure of the amount by which the price of the equity instrument has fluctuated or is expected to fluctuate. The expected volatility was based on the historical volatility of a group of guideline companies. An increase in expected volatility would increase compensation expense.
Risk-free interest rate - This is the U.S. Treasury rate as of the measurement date having a term approximating the expected life of the award. An increase in the risk-free interest rate would increase compensation expense.

25


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Expected term - The period of time over which the awards are expected to remain outstanding. The Company estimates the expected term as the mid-point between actual or expected vesting date and the contractual term. An increase in the expected term would increase compensation expense.
Restricted Stock Units
Incentive Bonus Awards
The Company has IBA agreements with several key employees to provide a bonus payment in the event of a liquidation event as defined in each agreement. The bonus amounts are calculated based on the value of the Company at the time of the liquidation event, less an amount determined upon the employee entering into the agreement. The right to the payment generally vests annually over a five-year period, with certain liquidation events resulting in an acceleration of the vesting period. As the vesting of these awards was contingent on a liquidation event, no amounts were required to be recorded prior to a liquidation event. The IBA agreements were modified in August 2019 to accelerate certain vesting conditions upon a liquidation event and to modify the settlement terms, whereby the Company settled the vested portion of each IBA in 50% shares of Class A common stock and/or vested RSUs and 50% cash, of which approximately 80% of the cash (40% of the total vested portion of the award) that the IBA holders would have otherwise received was withheld by the Company to fulfill tax withholding obligations and the remainder was paid out to IBA holders upon the occurrence of a liquidation event. As a result of the modification and the occurrence of a liquidation event through the IPO, the Company recorded equity-based compensation expense of $316,959, equivalent to the amount of IBAs vested at the time of the IPO, in the form of cash, 5,654,078 shares of Class A common stock and 2,199,453 vested RSUs to be released over a period of six to twenty-four months following the date of the IPO. The unvested portion of the IBAs are represented in the form of unvested RSUs that will vest, subject to the holders’ continued employment, over a period generally ranging from 2 years to 4 years.
Non-IBA Restricted Stock Units
The Company granted RSUs to certain team members that generally vest annually over two to three years or after three years from the date of grant, subject to the recipient’s continued employment or service to the Company through each vesting date.
A summary of activity related to these RSUs is as follows:
 
IBA RSUs
Non-IBA RSUs
Total RSUs
Weighted Average Grant Date Fair Value
RSUs outstanding, December 31, 2019
4,794,394

1,089,796

5,884,190

$
21.88

Granted

1,246,584

1,246,584

$
9.91

Vested
(1,146,495
)

(1,146,495
)
$
23.00

Forfeited

(20,845
)
(20,845
)
$
8.70

RSUs outstanding, March 31, 2020
3,647,899

2,315,535

5,963,434

$
18.87


As of March 31, 2020, unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested IBA and non-IBA RSUs was $68,040. This expense is expected to be recognized over a weighted average period of 2.1 years.
Incentive Bonus Units
SDC Financial issued Incentive Bonus Units (“IBUs”) to employees and non-employees. For employee IBUs, the fair value is based on SDC Financial’s unit value on the date of grant. For non-employee IBUs the fair value is determined at the time of vesting.
Two employee IBU agreements were modified in July 2019 to accelerate certain vesting conditions upon a change of control. As a result of the acceleration of vesting conditions resulting from the Reorganization Transactions and the IPO, the Company recognized incremental compensation expense of $436 during the year

26


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


ended December 31, 2019. As of March 31, 2020, unrecognized compensation expense related to unvested IBUs was $774.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
The SmileDirectClub, Inc. team member Stock Purchase Plan (“SPP”) was initiated in November 2019. Under the SPP, the Company is authorized to issue up to 5,772,944 shares of its Class A common stock to qualifying employees. Eligible team members may direct the Company, during each six months option period, to withhold up to 30% of their base salary and commissions, the proceeds from which are used to purchase shares of Class A common stock at a price equal to the lesser of 85% of the closing market price on the exercise date or the grant date. For accounting purposes, the SPP is considered a compensatory plan such that the Company recognizes equity-based compensation expense based on the fair value of the options held by the employees to purchase the Company’s shares.
Summary of Equity-Based Compensation Expense
The Company recognized compensation expense of $16,396, and $7,827 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Amounts are included in general and administrative expense on the consolidated statements of operations.
Note 13—Earnings per Share
Basic earnings per share of Class A common stock is computed by dividing net income attributable to SDC Inc. by the weighted-average number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share of Class A common stock is computed by dividing net income attributable to SDC Inc., adjusted for the assumed exchange of all potentially dilutive LLC Units for Class A common stock, by the weighted-average number of shares of Class A common stock outstanding adjusted to give effect to potentially dilutive elements. Prior to the IPO, the SDC Financial membership structure included Pre-IPO Units, some of which were profits interests. The Company analyzed the calculation of earnings per unit for periods prior to the IPO and determined that it resulted in values that would not be meaningful to the users of these unaudited consolidated financial statements. Therefore, earnings per share information has not been presented for the three months ended March 31, 2019.
The following table sets forth reconciliations of the numerators and denominators used to compute basic and diluted earnings per share of Class A common stock:

27


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


 
Three Months Ended March 31,
2020
 
 
Numerator:
 
Net loss
$
(107,400
)
Less: Net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests subsequent to the Reorganization Transactions
(78,150
)
Net loss attributable to SDC Inc. - basic
(29,250
)
Add: Reallocation of net loss attributable to noncontrolling interests after the Reorganization Transactions from the assumed exchange of LLC Units for Class A common stock
(78,150
)
Net loss attributable to SDC Inc. - diluted
$
(107,400
)
Denominator:
 
Weighted average shares of Class A common stock outstanding - basic
104,595,081

Add: Dilutive effects as shown separately below
 
LLC Units that are exchangeable for Class A common stock
279,260,624

Weighted average shares of Class A common stock outstanding - diluted
383,855,705

 

Earnings per share of Class A common stock outstanding - basic
$
(0.28
)
Earnings per share of Class A common stock outstanding - diluted
$
(0.28
)


Shares of the Company’s Class B common stock do not participate in the earnings or losses of the Company and are therefore not participating securities. As such, separate presentation of basic and diluted earnings per share of Class B common stock under the two-class method has not been presented.

Due to their anti-dilutive effect, the following securities have been excluded from diluted net loss per share in the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2020
Options
1,744,556

Restricted Stock Units
5,963,434

Warrants
144,999



On May 12, 2020, in connection with the HPS Credit Facility, the Company issued the HPS Warrants, as defined below, to affiliates of HPS Investment Partners, LLC exercisable at any time into an aggregate of 3,889,575 shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, which amounts to 1% of the Company’s total outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, as of the closing date of the HPS Credit Facility, at an exercise price of $7.11 per share, payable in cash or pursuant to a cashless exercise. The proceeds of the HPS Credit Facility were used to repay all outstanding amounts under the previous JPM Credit Facility and for working capital and other corporate purposes.

28


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


For a complete discussion of the new HPS Credit Facility and the HPS Warrants, see “Note 18-Subsequent Events” in the Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.
Note 14—Employee Benefit Plans
The Company has a defined contribution retirement plan under Section 401(k) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, that covers substantially all U.S. employees who meet minimum age and service requirements and allows participants to defer a portion of their annual compensation on a pre-tax basis. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company matched 100% of employees’ salary deferral contributions up to 3% and 50% of employees’ salary deferral contributions from 3% to 5% of employees’ eligible compensation. The Company contributed $1,251 and $395 to the 401(k) plan for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Note 15—Related Party Transactions
Products and Services
The Company is affiliated through common ownership by the Company’s Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, with several other entities (‘‘Affiliates”). Certain Affiliates incur (or previously incurred) costs related to the Company, including travel costs, certain senior management personnel costs, freight, and rent, the most significant of which is freight. The Company reimbursed $0 and $2,366 of freight incurred through an Affiliate during the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, which is included in cost of revenues—related parties. These costs incurred by Affiliates related to the Company are billed at actual cost to the Company by the Affiliates.
In addition, the Company paid one of the Affiliates $0 and $450 in management fees for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, which is included in general and administrative expenses. These fees include charges relating to several individuals who provide senior leadership to the Company as well as certain other services. Certain of these individuals have been granted IBUs, which have resulted in equity-based compensation expense (see Note 12).
The Company purchased legal services from a law firm where a partner is an immediate family member of a director of the Company. Fees paid for services totaled $841 and $60 for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
The Company was party to a Strategic Supply Agreement with Align, a former equityholder of the Company, in which the Company had the option to purchase aligners from Align at a price that varies with the level of product purchased. While the majority of the Company’s aligners were manufactured in-house, the Company did purchase aligners under this agreement during the first quarter of 2019. Additionally, the Company purchases oral digital imaging equipment from Align. For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, purchases from Align of equipment were $0 and $6,025, respectively, and purchases of aligners included in cost of revenues—related parties were $0 and $6,577, respectively.
In February 2019, the Company entered into an agreement with the David Katzman Revocable Trust (the ‘‘Trust”) to purchase all of the issued and outstanding membership units of a limited liability corporation (‘‘SDC Plane”) owned by the Trust for a purchase price of approximately $1,100, which was the Trust’s acquisition cost. SDC Plane owns an interest in an aircraft, which is available for use by our executives.
In March 2020, the Company purchased a private aircraft from Camelot SI Leasing, LLC, for $3,400, the appraised value of the aircraft.
Distribution Payable
In August 2019, SDC Financial declared a distribution of $43,400 less any amount determined to be due and payable to Align in connection with the current Align arbitration proceedings to the pre-IPO investors. Such distribution will be paid upon final determination of the outcome and amount payable, if any, in connection with such current arbitration proceedings. This amount is presented within other long-term liabilities on the accompanying condensed consolidated balance sheets.

29


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


Note 16—Commitments and Contingencies
Legal Matters
In the ordinary course of conducting its business, the Company is involved, from time to time, in various contractual, product liability, intellectual property, and other claims and disputes incidental to its business. Litigation is subject to many uncertainties, the outcome of individual litigated matters is not predictable with assurance, and it is reasonably possible that some of these matters may be decided unfavorably to the Company. In addition, the Company periodically receives communications from state and federal regulatory and similar agencies inquiring about the nature of its business activities, licensing of professionals providing services, and similar matters. Such matters are routinely concluded with no financial or operational impact on the Company.
From September to December 2019, a number of purported stockholder class action complaints were filed in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee and in state courts in Tennessee, Michigan and New York against the Company, members of the Company’s board of directors, certain of its current officers, and the underwriters of its IPO. The following nine complaints have been filed to date: Mancour v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19-1169-IV (TN Chancery Court filed 9/27/19), Vang v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19c2316 (TN Circuit Court filed 9/30/19), Fernandez v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19c2371 (TN Circuit Court filed 10/4/19), Wei Wei v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19-1254-III (TN Chancery Court filed 10/18/19), Andre v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19-cv-12883 (E.D. Mich. filed 10/2/19), Ginsberg v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19-cv-09794 (S.D.N.Y. filed 10/23/19), Franchi v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19- cv-962 (M.D. Tenn. filed 10/29/19), Nurlybayev v. SmileDirectClub, Inc., 19-177527-CB (Oakland County, MI Circuit Court filed 10/30/19), Sasso v. Katzman, et al., No. 657557/2019 (NY Supreme Court filed 12/18/19). In December 2019, the Fernandez, Vang, Mancour and Wei Wei actions were consolidated as In re SmileDirectClub, Inc. Securities Litigation, 19-1169-IV (TN Chancery Court filed December 20, 2019). The complaints all allege, among other things, that the registration statement filed with the SEC on August 16, 2019, and accompanying amendments, and the Prospectus filed with the SEC on September 13, 2019, in connection with the Company’s initial public offering were inaccurate and misleading, contained untrue statements of material facts, omitted to state other facts necessary to make the statements made not misleading, and omitted to state material facts required to be stated therein. The complaints seek unspecified money damages, other equitable relief, and attorneys’ fees and costs. All of the actions are in the preliminary stages. On February 26, 2020, Defendants prevailed on their motion to dismiss the Michigan state court action. On January 22, 2020, the New York state court action was stayed. On February 10, 2020, the Company moved to dismiss or stay the Tennessee state court action. On March 23, 2020, the Company moved to dismiss the Tennessee federal action. The Company denies any alleged wrongdoing and intends to vigorously defend against these actions.
In November and December 2019 and March 2020, three stockholder derivative actions were filed against the members of the Company’s board of directors, certain of our current officers and related entities. The complaints allege, among other things, that the defendants breached their fiduciary duties by allowing the Final IPO Prospectus to contain materially misleading statements and by participating in insider selling in connection with the IPO. The complaints seek, among other things, money damages on behalf of the Company, restitution and/or disgorgement from the selling director defendants and cancellation of the Company’s Class B common stock. The three derivative actions have been consolidated into In Re SmileDirectClub, Inc. Derivative Litigation, C.A. No. 2019-0940-MTZ (Delaware Chancery Court) and Plaintiffs filed a consolidated amended complaint on April 8, 2020. The action remains in the preliminary stages.
Some state dentistry boards have established new rules or interpreted existing rules in a manner that limits or restricts the Company’s ability to conduct its business as currently conducted in other states or have engaged in conduct so as to otherwise interfere with the Company’s ability to conduct its business. We have filed actions in federal court in Alabama, Georgia, and California against the state dental boards in those states, alleging violations by the dental boards of various laws, including the Sherman Act and the Commerce Clause. While a national orthodontic association has filed Amicus Briefs in support of the dental boards in both the Georgia and Alabama litigations and has filed a motion to do the same in California (which motion was denied), the FTC and DOJ have filed joint Amicus Briefs in support of the Company in both the Alabama and Georgia matters. An

30


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


amended complaint is being filed in the California matter in response to the Court’s order giving the Company leave to amend on all of its claims with the exception of its equal protection act claim. Both the Alabama and Georgia matters are pending before the 11th Circuit Court of Appeals as a result of the dental boards in both states appealing the lower courts’ decisions. The Georgia matter is scheduled for oral argument on May 20, 2020. The FTC and DOJ have filed an unopposed motion to use a portion of the Company’s time to present at oral argument to argue their position that the Georgia government has not demonstrated it sufficiently oversaw the dentistry board. The Alabama matter is tentatively scheduled for oral argument on July 6, 2020.
In September 2019, a putative class action on behalf of a consumer and three orthodontists was brought against the Company in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Tennessee, Ciccio, et al. v. SmileDirectClub, LLC, et al., Case No. 3:19-cv-00845 (M.D. Tenn.). The Plaintiffs assert claims for breach of warranty, false advertising under the Lanham Act, common law fraud, and various state consumer protection statutes relating to our advertising. The Company filed its motion to strike and motion to dismiss the providers claims in December 2019 with briefing on the motions concluded in February 2020. No ruling has been made on these motions as of yet. In January 2020, one of the putative consumers who withdrew from the above action filed a declaratory judgment action in the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida seeking to compel the Company to arbitrate. The consumer plaintiff simultaneously filed a putative class arbitration in the American Arbitration Association, pursuing substantially similar claims. This consumer and the original consumer plaintiff in the Middle District of Tennessee litigation have since sought to rejoin the Middle District of Tennessee litigation or, in the alternative, to intervene. The Company has filed its motion in response to oppose the consumer plaintiff’s motion to rejoin or intervene. Litigation is in the pleading stage and discovery has not yet commenced. The Company denies any alleged wrongdoing and intends to defend against these actions vigorously.

In March 2019, a final arbitration award was issued in an arbitration proceeding brought by the Company alleging that one of its former members, Align Technology, Inc., had violated certain restrictive covenants set forth in its operating agreement. The arbitrator ruled that Align had breached both the non-competition and confidentiality provisions of our operating agreement and that, as a result, Align was required to close its Invisalign Stores, return all of the Company’s confidential information, and sell its membership units to the Company or certain of the Company’s pre-IPO unitholders for an amount equal to the balance of Align’s capital account as of November 2017. The arbitrator also extended the non-competition period to which Align is subject through August of 2022 and prohibited Align from using our confidential information in any manner going forward. The Company is paying Align $54,000, pursuant to a promissory note payable over 24 months through March 2021, in full redemption of Align’s membership units pursuant to this ruling. The ruling has been confirmed in its entirety in the circuit court of Cook County, Chicago, Illinois, but Align continues to object to the purchase price and repurchase documentation despite the arbitration ruling and its confirmation, and has since filed a subsequent arbitration proceeding disputing the $54,000 redemption amount and seeking an additional $43,400. Arbitration on this matter was scheduled for June 30, 2020 through July 16, 2020 but has since been postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The parties will address a new arbitration date at a future status conference.

Tax Receivable Agreement
As described in Note 8, the Company is a party to the Tax Receivable Agreement pursuant to which SDC Inc. is contractually committed to pay the Continuing LLC Members 85% of the amount of any tax benefits that SDC Inc. actually realizes, or in some cases is deemed to realize, as a result of certain transactions. The Company is not obligated to make any payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement until the tax benefits associated with the transactions that gave rise to the payments are realized. TRA Payments are contingent upon, among other things, (i) generation of future taxable income over the term of the Tax Receivable Agreement and (ii) future changes in tax laws. If the Company does not generate sufficient taxable income in the aggregate over the term of the Tax Receivable Agreement to utilize the tax benefits, then it will not be required to make the related TRA Payments. During the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, the Company recognized no liabilities relating to its obligations under the Tax Receivable Agreement, after concluding that it was not probable that the Company would have sufficient future taxable income over the term of the Tax Receivable Agreement to utilize the related tax

31


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


benefits. There were no transactions subject to the Tax Receivable Agreement for which the Company recognized the related liability, as the Company concluded that it would not have sufficient future taxable income to utilize all of the related tax benefits.
Note 17—Segment Reporting
The Company provides aligner products. The Company’s chief operating decision maker views the operations and manages the business on a consolidated basis and, therefore the Company has one operating segment, aligner products, for segment reporting purposes in accordance with ASC 280-10, “Segment Reporting.” For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, a substantial majority of the Company’s revenues were generated by sales within the United States and substantially all of its net property, plant and equipment was within the United States.
Note 18—Subsequent Events

COVID-19 Pandemic
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and in an effort to fortify the short-term financial position of the business, in April the Company took the following actions: reduced its marketing efforts; furloughed much of its headquarters and retail workforce; temporarily suspended cash pay for its executive and leadership teams; and bolstered its business contingency plans. Throughout the remainder of the year, the Company expects to reopen its SmileShops, as and when it is deemed safe to do so, as well as bring back our workforce, in both instances in a manner that is commiserate with the needs of our business.
New HPS Credit Facility
On May 12, 2020, SDC U.S. SmilePay SPV (“SPV”), a wholly-owned special purpose subsidiary of the Company, entered into a Loan Agreement among SPV, as borrower, SmileDirectClub, LLC, as the seller and servicer, certain lenders, and HPS Investment Partners, LLC, as administrative agent and collateral agent, providing a five-year secured term loan facility to SPV in an initial aggregate maximum principal amount of $400,000, with the ability to request incremental term loans of up to an additional aggregate principal amount of $100,000 with the consent of the lenders participating in such increase (the “HPS Credit Facility”).
The proceeds of the HPS Credit Facility were used to repay all outstanding amounts under the previous JPM Credit Facility and for working capital and other corporate purposes.
Outstanding loans under the HPS Credit Facility bear interest at a variable rate equal to three-month LIBOR (subject to a 1.75% per annum floor), plus 7.50% per annum payable in cash, plus 3.25% per annum payable in kind or, at the Company’s election, wholly or partially in cash.
Subject to certain exceptions, the HPS Credit Facility is secured by first-priority security interests in SPV’s assets, which consist of certain receivables, cash, intellectual property and related assets. SPV’s obligations under the Loan Agreement are guaranteed on a limited basis by SmileDirectClub, LLC and SDC Financial LLC.
The HPS Credit Facility contains various restrictions, covenants, ratios and events of default, including:

SPV has limitations on consolidations, creation of liens, incurring additional indebtedness, dispositions of assets, investments and paying dividends or other distributions.
SDC Financial LLC, its consolidated subsidiaries and certain originator entities must maintain minimum monthly liquidity of $100,000 and are subject to additional leverage ratios upon the occurrence of additional debt.
SDC Financial LLC is subject to a consolidated leverage ratio measured as of the end of each fiscal quarter beginning March 31, 2022, to be calculated based on annualized EBITDA for the first three quarters of 2022, and thereafter, to be calculated based on EBITDA during the trailing four fiscal quarters for the relevant period.

32


SmileDirectClub, Inc.
Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) (Continued)
(in thousands, except share/unit data and per share/unit amounts)


The HPS Credit Facility can be refinanced during the first year, provided that SPV would be required to pay the amount of interest that would have accrued during the remainder of the first year, plus 4% of the principal amount prepaid; and after the first year, for a fee of 4% of the principal amount prepaid, with the prepayment fee decreasing each year to 3% in the third year, 2% in the fourth year and 1% in the fifth year.
HPS Warrants
In connection with the HPS Credit Facility, the Company issued warrants (“HPS Warrants”) to affiliates of HPS Investment Partners, LLC exercisable at any time into an aggregate of 3,889,575 shares of the Company’s Class A common stock, which amounts to 1% of the Company’s total outstanding Class A and Class B common stock, including the HPS Warrants, as of the closing date of the HPS Credit Facility, at an exercise price of $7.11 per share, payable in cash or pursuant to a cashless exercise.

33



Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. In addition to historical consolidated financial information, the following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates, and beliefs. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in any forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, particularly in Risk Factors.
See Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.

We are the industry pioneer as the first direct-to-consumer medtech platform for transforming smiles. Through our cutting-edge teledentistry technology and vertically integrated model, we are revolutionizing the oral care industry. Our direct-to-consumer model provides members with a customized clear aligner therapy treatment delivered directly to their doors. We integrate marketing, aligner manufacturing, and fulfillment, and provide a proprietary web-based teledenstistry platform for the monitoring of treatment by licensed dentists and orthodontists through the completion of a member’s treatment. We are headquartered in Nashville, Tennessee and have locations throughout the U.S, Puerto Rico, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the U.K., Ireland, Hong Kong, Germany and Costa Rica.
Key Business Metrics
We review the following key business metrics to evaluate our business performance: Unique aligner order shipments
For the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019, we shipped 122,751 and 109,894 unique aligner orders, respectively. Each unique aligner order shipment represents a single contracted member. We believe that our ability to increase the number of aligner orders shipped is an indicator of our market penetration, growth of our business, consumer interest, and our member conversion.
Average aligner gross sales price
We define average gross sales price (‘‘ASP”) as gross revenue, before implicit price concession and other variable considerations and exclusive of sales tax, from aligner orders shipped divided by the number of unique aligner orders shipped. We believe ASP is an indicator of the value we provide to our members and our ability to maintain our pricing. Our ASP for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019 was $1,770 and $1,767, respectively. Our ASP is less than our standard $1,895 price as a result of discounts offered to select members.
Key Factors Affecting Our Performance
We believe that our future performance will depend on many factors, including those described below and in the section titled “Risk Factors” included in Part I, Item 1A. in our Annual Report on Form 10‑K for the year ended December 31, 2019, and updated elsewhere in this Form 10-Q.
COVID-19 pandemic
The impacts of COVID-19 unfolded globally throughout the first quarter of 2020, growing in strength from what the World Health Organization (“WHO”) declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern in January, to an increased threat assessment by the WHO from high to very high in February, culminating with the WHO characterization of COVID-19 as a pandemic in March 2020. In response to COVID-19 and the related containment measures, we took the following steps to ensure the health and safety of our employees and our members: transitioned our employees, where possible, to a remote working environment; closed our SmileShops (except in Hong Kong); and implemented enhanced cleaning and sanitizing routines as well as social distancing and other protective measures at our manufacturing facilities. We also repurposed certain of our 3D printing capabilities in order to manufacture personal protective equipment at cost for healthcare organizations and government agencies.

34



While we did not incur material disruptions to our business in the first two months of the quarter, the impacts of COVID-19 correlated with its rise as a pandemic, intensified in March and materially disrupted our operations. Specifically, on March 20, 2020, we commenced the closure of our SmileShops, which have historically been a key driver in member conversion to aligner sales. This resulted in lower than anticipated revenue growth and a decrease in our gross margin. Further, in an effort to fortify the short-term financial position of the business, in April we took the following actions: reduced our marketing efforts; furloughed much of our headquarters and retail workforce; temporarily suspended cash pay for our executive and leadership teams; and bolstered our business contingency plans. Throughout the remainder of the year, we expect to reopen our SmileShops, as and when it is deemed safe to do so, as well as bring back our workforce, in both instances in a manner that is commensurate with the needs of our business and protects the health and safety of our team members and customers.
We are working to navigate the uncertain economic and operating conditions resulting from COVID-19. We believe that our direct-to-consumer and teledentistry platforms are well suited for this environment. Specifically, our impression kit offers the ability to begin treatment or obtain any necessary mid-course corrections or refinements remotely from home. We believe that, going forward, increased demand for our impression kit and the expected resulting conversion to aligner sales will help to partially offset the decrease in revenue growth and gross margin experienced as a result of our SmileShop closures. As of the date of this filing, we continue to fill orders in a timely manner and have not experienced nor do we foresee any material disruptions to our ability to manufacture or distribute our products. Although we cannot know or control the duration and severity of COVID-19 and its impact on our business, we will continue to focus on: the health and safety of our employees and our members; continuity in our supply chain; quality and safety in our manufacturing; timely order fulfillment; and nimble decision-making, observing trends and meeting our members in whatever way they choose to experience our products. We remain committed to our mission to democratize access to a smile each and every person loves, and to growing our business, with the ability to shift our strategy to meet our members’ needs in this unprecedented time.
Efficient acquisition of new members
Visits to our website: On average, we have approximately five million unique visitors to our website each month, and we expect to continue to invest in sales and marketing to spread awareness and increase the number of individuals visiting our website.
Conversions from visits to aligner orders: From our website, individuals can either sign up for a SmileShop appointment or order a doctor prescribed impression kit to evaluate and ultimately purchase our clear aligner treatment. We expect to continue to invest heavily in our proprietary technology platform, operations, and other processes to improve member conversion from website visit through SmileShop appointment booking, appointment attendance, and aligners ordered; and a similar process for our impression kits.
SmilePay
We offer SmilePay, a convenient monthly payment plan, to maximize accessibility and provide an affordable option for all of our members. The $250 down payment for SmilePay covers our cost of manufacturing the aligners, and the interest income generated by SmilePay helps offset the negative impact of delinquencies and cancellations. A number of factors affect delinquency and cancellation rates, including member-specific circumstances, our efforts in member service and management, and the broader macroeconomic environment.

Continued investment in controlled growth
We intend to continue investing in our business to support future growth by focusing on strategies that best address our large market opportunity, both domestically and internationally. Our key investment initiatives include continued advancement in automating and streamlining our manufacturing and treatment planning operations to allow us to stay ahead of consumer demand, continued discipline around marketing and selling investments, including a focus on pushing more demand through existing SmileShops, impression kits, and our office direct model, enhancing our existing product platform, and introducing new products to further differentiate our offerings. Additionally, we intend to continue to develop a suite of ancillary products for our

35



members’ oral care needs, lengthening our relationship with our members and enhancing our recurring revenue base. As part of these key investment initiatives, we will also continue to explore collaborations with retailers and other third-party partnerships as a component of our expansion strategy.
International expansion
We will continue to make significant investments to expand our presence in international markets, particularly in Europe, Asia-Pacific, and other geographies.
Pace of adoption for teledentistry
The rate of adoption of teledentistry will impact our ability to acquire new members and grow our revenue.
Components of Operating Results
Revenues
Our revenues are derived primarily from sales of aligners, impression kits, whitening gel, and retainers, and interest earned on SmilePay. Revenues are recorded based on the amount that is expected to be collected, which considers implicit price concessions, discounts, and returns. Revenues includes revenue recognized from orders shipped in the current period, as well as deferred revenue recognized from orders in prior periods. We offer our members the option of paying the entire $1,895 cost of their treatment upfront or enrolling in SmilePay, our convenient monthly payment plan requiring a $250 down payment and an average monthly payment of $85 for 24 months.
Financing revenue includes interest earned on SmilePay aligner orders shipped in prior periods. Our average APR is approximately 17%, which is included in the $85 monthly payment.

Cost of revenues
Cost of revenues includes the total cost of products produced and sold. Such costs include direct materials, direct labor, overhead costs (occupancy costs, indirect labor, and depreciation), fees retained by doctors, freight and duty expenses associated with moving materials from vendors to our facilities and from our facilities to our members, and adjustments for shrinkage (physical inventory losses), lower of cost or net realizable value, slow moving product, and excess inventory quantities.
We manufacture all of our aligners and retainers in our manufacturing facilities. We have built extensive supply chain mechanisms that allow us to quickly and accurately create treatment plans and manufacture aligners.

Marketing and selling expenses
Our marketing expenses include costs associated with an omni-channel approach supported by media mix modeling (MMM) and multitouch attribution modeling (MTA). These costs include online sources, such as social media and paid search, and offline sources, such as television, experiential events, local events, and business-to- business partnerships. We also have comprehensive strategies across search engine optimization, customer relationship management (CRM) marketing, and earned and owned marketing. We have invested significant resources into optimizing our member conversion process.
Our selling costs include both labor and non-labor expenses associated with our SmileShops and costs associated with our sales and scheduling teams in our customer contact center. Non-labor costs associated with our SmileShops include rent, travel, supplies, and depreciation costs associated with digital photography equipment, furniture, and computers, among other costs.

General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses include payroll and benefit costs for corporate team members, equity-

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based compensation expenses, occupancy costs of corporate facilities, bank charges, costs associated with credit and debit card interchange fees, outside service fees, and other administrative costs, such as computer maintenance, supplies, travel, and lodging.

Interest and other expenses
Interest expense includes interest from our financing agreements and other long-term indebtedness. Other expense includes unrealized gains and losses on currency translation adjustments related to certain intercompany loan agreements between legal entities, disposal of long-lived assets, and other non-operating gains and losses.

Provision for income tax expense
We are subject to U.S. federal, state, and local income taxes with respect to our allocable share of any taxable income of SDC Financial, and we are taxed at the prevailing corporate tax rates. In addition to tax expenses, we also incur tax expenses related to our operations, as well as payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement. We receive a portion of any distributions made by SDC Financial. Any cash received from such distributions from our subsidiaries will first be used by us to satisfy any tax liability and then to make any payments required under the Tax Receivable Agreement. See Note 8.

Adjusted EBITDA
To supplement our consolidated financial statements presented in accordance with GAAP, we also present Adjusted EBITDA, a financial measure which is not based on any standardized methodology prescribed by GAAP.
We define Adjusted EBITDA as net loss, plus depreciation and amortization, interest expense, income tax expense, equity-based compensation, and certain other non-operating expenses such as one-time severance and other labor costs, and unrealized foreign currency adjustments. Adjusted EBITDA does not have a definition under GAAP, and our definition of Adjusted EBITDA may not be the same as, or comparable to, similarly titled measures used by other companies. We use Adjusted EBITDA when evaluating our performance when we believe that certain items are not indicative of operating performance. Adjusted EBITDA provides useful supplemental information to management regarding our operating performance and we believe it will provide the same to members/stockholders.
We believe that Adjusted EBITDA will provide useful information to members/stockholders about our performance, financial condition, and results of operations for the following reasons: (i) Adjusted EBITDA would be among the measures used by our management team to evaluate our operating performance and make day-to-day operating decisions and (ii) Adjusted EBITDA is frequently used by securities analysts, investors, lenders, and other interested parties as a common performance measures to compare results or estimate valuations across companies in our industry. Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered in isolation from, or as a substitute for, financial information prepared in accordance with GAAP. A reconciliation of Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, is set forth below.
Results of Operations
The following table summarizes our historical results of operations. The period-over-period comparison of results of operations is not necessarily indicative of results for future periods, and the results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the operating results to be expected for the full fiscal year. You should read this discussion of our results of operations in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Form 10-Q.

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(in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
2020
2019
(unaudited)
Statements of Operations Data:
 
 
Total revenues
$
196,650

$
177,736

Cost of revenues
59,777

48,915

Gross profit
136,873

128,821

Marketing and selling expenses
142,324

95,733

General and administrative expenses
91,029

49,459

Loss from operations
(96,480
)
(16,371
)
Total interest expense
4,022

3,971

Other expense
4,924

118

Net loss before provision for income tax expense
(105,426
)
(20,460
)
Provision for income tax expense
1,974

20

Net loss
(107,400
)
(20,480
)
Net loss attributable to non-controlling interest
(78,150
)

Net loss attributable to SDC Inc.
$
(29,250
)
$
(20,480
)
Other Data:
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
$
(66,982
)
$
(3,889
)

The following table reconciles Adjusted EBITDA to net loss, the most directly comparable GAAP financial measure.
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
2020
2019
(unaudited)
Net loss
$
(107,400
)
$
(20,480
)
Depreciation and amortization
11,442

4,655

Total interest expense
4,022

3,971

Income tax expense
1,974

20

Equity-based compensation
16,396

7,827

Unrealized foreign currency adjustments
5,188

107

Other non-operating general and administrative costs
1,396

11

Adjusted EBITDA
$
(66,982
)
$
(3,889
)

Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

Revenues

Revenues increased $18.9 million, or 10.6%, to $196.7 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from $177.7 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019. The increase in revenues was primarily driven by growth in unique aligner shipments of 12% for the three months ended March 31, 2020 compared to the same period in 2019. Growth in unique aligner orders was primarily driven by an increase in number of website visitors and SmileShop scans and conversion thereof to aligner sales, along with an increase in sales and marketing spend.

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This growth was partially offset by the impacts of COVID-19 on our operations, including the closure of SmileShops beginning in the latter half of March 2020 and a corresponding reduction in sales.
Cost of revenues
Cost of revenues increased $10.9 million, or 22.2%, to $59.8 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from $48.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019. Cost of revenues increased as a percentage of revenues from 28% in the three months ended March 31, 2019 to 30% in the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily as a result of the negative impacts to our revenue caused by our response to COVID-19 including the closure of SmileShops and pause in production at our manufacturing facility in the latter half of March 2020. During the pause in production, we continued to pay team members through early April 2020. This increase was partially offset by a shift of producing more aligners internally versus outsourcing to a contract manufacturer, as well as increased automation.
Gross margin decreased to 70% in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from 72% in the three months ended March 31, 2019, primarily as a result of the factors described above.
Marketing and selling expenses
Marketing and selling expenses as a percentage of revenues increased to 72% in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from 54% in the three months ended March 31, 2019, and increased to $142.3 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from $95.7 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019, primarily due to increased digital and media advertising and branding efforts, and by expansion of SmileShop locations to prepare for growth. The increase in marketing and selling expenses as a percentage of revenue was negatively impacted by the effect of COVID-19 on our revenues, including the closure of SmileShops and pause in production at our manufacturing facility.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses increased $41.6 million, or 84%, to $91.0 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from $49.5 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019, primarily due to the expansion of our team members and services to support our business growth as well as an increase in equity-based compensation expense. General and administrative expenses as a percent of revenue increased from 28% in the three months ended March 31, 2019 to 46% in the three months ended March 31, 2020, primarily as a result of the factors mentioned above, including the deleveraging of our general and administrative expenses due to the negative effect of COVID-19 on our revenues.
Interest expense
Interest expense increased $0.1 million, or 1%, to $4.0 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from $4.0 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019, primarily as a result of a lower interest rates in new facilities, partially offset by higher amounts of indebtedness outstanding in the first quarter of 2020 compared to the same period in 2019.
Other expense
Other expense increased $4.8 million to $4.9 million in the three months ended March 31, 2020 from $0.1 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019, primarily as a result of the impact of unrealized foreign currency translation adjustments.
Provision for income tax expense
Our provision for income tax expense was $2.0 million and $0.0 million for the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019.
Liquidity and Capital Resources

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As of March 31, 2020, SDC Inc. had an accumulated deficit of $143.8 million and had working capital of $292.1 million. Our operations have been financed primarily through net proceeds from the sale of our equity securities and borrowings under our debt instruments.
Our short-term liquidity needs primarily include working capital, international expansion, innovation, research and development, and debt service requirements. We believe that our current liquidity, including net proceeds received in connection with the IPO and our new HPS Credit Facility, will be sufficient to meet our projected operating, investing, and debt service requirements for at least the next 12 months. Our future capital requirements may vary materially from those currently planned and will depend on many factors, including our levels of revenue, sales and marketing activities, the results of research and development and other business initiatives, the timing of new product introductions, and overall economic conditions including the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. To the extent that current and anticipated future sources of liquidity are insufficient to fund our future business activities and requirements, we may be required to seek additional equity or debt financing. The sale of additional equity would result in additional dilution to our stockholders. The incurrence of additional debt financing would result in debt service obligations, and any future instruments governing such debt could provide for operating and financing covenants that would restrict our operations.
SDC Inc. is a holding company with no operations of our own and, as such, we depend on our subsidiaries for cash to fund all of our operations and expenses. We depend on the payment of distributions by our subsidiaries, and such distributions may be restricted as a result of regulatory restrictions, state and international laws regarding distributions, or contractual agreements, including agreements governing indebtedness. For a discussion of those restrictions, see “Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Organization and Structure—We are a holding company. Our sole material asset is our equity interest in SDC Financial, and as such, we depend on our subsidiaries for cash to fund all of our expenses, including taxes and payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement.” included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ending December 31, 2019. We currently anticipate that such restrictions will not impact our ability to meet our cash obligations.
Cash flows
The following table sets forth a summary of our cash flows for the periods indicated.
(in thousands)
Three Months Ended March 31,
2020
2019
 
 
Net cash used in operating activities
$
(70,395
)
$
(38,784
)
Net cash used in investing activities
(28,123
)
(20,601
)
Net cash provided by (used in) financing activities
4,494

(13,360
)
Increase in cash
(94,024
)
(72,745
)
Cash at beginning of period
318,458

313,929

Cash at end of period

$
224,434

$
241,184


Comparison of the three months ended March 31, 2020 and 2019

As of March 31, 2020, we had $224.4 million in cash, a decrease of $16.8 million compared to $241.2 million as of March 31, 2019.
Cash used in operating activities increased to $70.4 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020 compared to $38.8 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019, or an increase of $31.6 million, primarily resulting from an increase in net loss during the period.
Cash used in investing activities increased to $28.1 million during the three months ended March 31, 2020, compared to $20.6 million in the three months ended March 31, 2019, primarily resulting from an increase in the

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